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While borrowed funds are central to prostate cancer x ray images purchase penegra from india the concept of "leverage prostate cancer 910 cheap 100 mg penegra free shipping," its definition can expand to prostate 30ml equals buy 100mg penegra with mastercard any instrument through which a bank can magnify its exposure to a given asset. For a more technical explanation of structured finance, see Ashcraft and Schermann (2008) or Gorton (2008). Naturally, an issuer wants to maximize the size of the senior tranche so as to lower the cost of funding. However, the higher the share of senior tranches, the lower the subordination and thus protection of those tranches. As we will discuss in a forthcoming report, since 1989, when the international Basel Accord went into effect, U. This increase in leverage, as well as the growth in aggregate liquidity, was linked to the prolonged rise in house prices and asset prices across the board. However, financial institutions are far from passive; when asset prices are rising it is highly unprofitable for a bank to be "under-leveraged" and they will look for ways to utilize their new "surplus capital. This phenomenon, for which the authors provide empirical evidence, leads to an expansion in aggregate liquidity and aggregate leverage in the financial system. As the authors put it on page 31, "Aggregate liquidity can be seen as the rate of growth of aggregate balance sheets. When the crisis hit asset prices plummeted, and the feedback loop worked in the opposite direction as leveraged institutions 25. Investment banks were not supervised like deposittaking commercial banks and did not have the same capital requirements, thus they were able to increase leverage to a greater extent. Nor were investment banks subject to the regulatory restrictions that accompany the capital requirements. Institutions such as Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers borrowed at very short term and held risky longer-term assets, with low levels of capital or reserves to cover changing market conditions. Greenlaw et al (2008) calculate that while commercial banks are on average leveraged 9. One of the favorite instruments of short-term borrowing for investment banks became the overnight repurchase agreement, or "repo loan" (See Morris and Shin 2008 for an insightful discussion). Overnight repos are a form of "collateralized borrowing" whereby a bank pledges its assets as collateral in an overnight loan with another bank. To oversimplify, Bank 1 sells a portion of its assets to Bank 2, with the understanding that it will buy back the assets the next day at a slightly higher price. This process was deemed a low credit risk during the good times, but had profound systemic implications because it connected financial institutions to each other so that when one got into trouble, its problems spread to the other institutions with which it was trading. Overnight repos became an increasingly important source of funding for investment banks. Brunnermeier (2008) shows that from 2001 to 2007, overnight repos as a share of total investment bank assets grew from roughly 12 percent to over 25 percent. That is, by 2007, investment banks were rolling over liabilities equal to one quarter of their balance sheet overnight. Figure 6 shows another example of the rapid increases in short-term borrowing, with maturity as low as one day that occurred as the boom peaked in 2006 and early 2007 in Asset-Backed Commercial Paper markets. This source of funding was cheaper than longer-term borrowing, and until August 2007, it could be rolled over like clockwork. The drying up of these short-term funding markets has been an important element in the financial crisis since August 2007. It was also expected to shift risk out of the heart of the payments system and reduce the risk of financial crisis. The increased use of leverage and short-term borrowing complemented the rise in securitization, as institutions sought to magnify their exposure to rising asset prices. As we discuss in future reports, while securitization was meant to spread out risk away from the center of the financial system, exactly the opposite happened. When the credit crisis hit in August 2007, risk that was meant to be dispersed throughout the system was in fact heavily concentrated among leveraged institutions at the heart of the financial system.
At one extreme are pathogens that have high potential to prostate cancer on t2 mri buy discount penegra 100mg on-line cause truly global prostate on ultrasound purchase 50 mg penegra with visa, severe pandemics prostate cancer young adults buy penegra. These pathogens transmit efficiently between humans, have sufficiently long asymptomatic infectious periods to facilitate the undetected movement of infected persons, and have symptomatic profiles that present challenges for differential diagnosis (particularly in the early periods of infection). These agents (for example, Nipah virus and H5N1 and H7N9 influenzas) have not demonstrated sustained human-to-human transmission but could become transmitted more efficiently as a result of mutations and adaptation. A third group of pathogens (for example, Ebola, Marburg, Lassa) has the potential to cause regional or interregional epidemics, but the risk of a truly global pandemic is limited because of the slow pace of transmission or high probability of detection and containment. Among all known pandemic pathogens, influenza poses the principal threat because of its potential severity and semiregular occurrence since at least the 16th century (Morens and others 2010). The West Africa Ebola virus outbreak occurred from 2013 to 2016, but the peak and international response efforts began in 2014. Its severity reflects in part the limited health technologies of the period, when no antibiotics, antivirals, or vaccines were available to reduce transmission or mortality (Murray and others 2006). Origin of Pandemics Most new pandemics have originated through the "zoonotic" transmission of pathogens from animals to humans (Murphy 1998; Woolhouse and 318 Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty Gowtage-Sequeria 2005), and the next pandemic is likely to be a zoonosis as well. Zoonoses enter into human populations from both domesticated animals (such as farmed swine or poultry) and wildlife. Many historically significant zoonoses were introduced through increased human-animal interaction following domestication, and potentially high-risk zoonoses (including avian influenzas) continue to emerge from livestock production systems (Van Boeckel and others 2012; Wolfe, Dunavan, and Diamond 2007). Some pathogens (including Ebola) have emerged from wildlife reservoirs and entered into human populations through the hunting and consumption of wild species (such as bushmeat), the wild animal trade, and other contact with wildlife (Pike and others 2010; Wolfe, Dunavan, and Diamond 2007). Zoonotic pathogens vary in the extent to which they can survive within and spread between human hosts. These episodes of "viral chatter" increase pandemic risk by providing opportunities for viruses to become better adapted to spreading within a human population. Pathogens that are past stage 3 are of the greatest concern, because they are sufficiently adapted to humans to cause long transmission chains between humans (directly or indirectly through vectors), and their geographic spread is not constrained by the habitat range of an animal reservoir. Pandemic Risk Factors Pandemic risk, as noted, is driven by the combined effects of spark risk and spread risk. Spark Risk A zoonotic spark could arise from the introduction of a pathogen from either domesticated animals or wildlife. Zoonoses from domesticated animals are concentrated in areas with dense livestock production systems, including areas of China, India, Japan, the United States, and Western Europe. Key drivers for spark risk from domesticated animals include intensive and extensive farming and livestock production systems and live animal markets, as well as the potential for contact between livestock and wildlife reservoirs (Gilbert and others 2014; Jones and others 2008). Wildlife zoonosis risk is distributed far more broadly, with foci in China, India, West and Central Africa, and the Amazon Basin (Jones and others 2008). Risk drivers include behavioral factors (such as bushmeat hunting and use of animal-based traditional medicines), natural resource extraction (such as sylviculture and logging), the extension of roads into wildlife habitats, and environmental factors (including the degree and distribution of animal diversity) (Wolfe and others 2005). Spread Risk After a spark or importation, the risk that a pathogen will spread within a population is influenced by pathogenspecific factors (including genetic adaptation and mode of transmission) and human population-level factors (such as the density of the population and the susceptibility to infection; patterns of movement driven by travel, trade, and migration; and speed and effectiveness of public health surveillance and response measures) (Sands and others 2016). Pandemics: Risks, Impacts, and Mitigation 319 Dense concentrations of population, especially in urban centers harboring overcrowded informal settlements, can act as foci for disease transmission and accelerate the spread of pathogens (Neiderud 2015). Moreover, social inequality, poverty, and their environmental correlates can increase individual susceptibility to infection significantly (Farmer 1996). Collectively, all these factors suggest that marginalized populations, including refugees and people living in urban slums and informal settlements, likely face elevated risks of morbidity and mortality during a pandemic. The index illustrates global variation in institutional readiness to detect and respond to a large-scale outbreak of infectious disease. Well-prepared countries have effective public institutions, strong economies, and adequate investment in the health sector. They have built specific competencies critical to detecting and managing disease outbreaks, including surveillance, mass vaccination, and risk communications. Poorly prepared countries may suffer from political instability, weak public administration, inadequate resources for public health, and gaps in fundamental outbreak detection and response systems. A geographic analysis of preparedness shows that some areas of high spark risk also are the least prepared. However, geographic areas with high spark risk from wildlife species (including Central and West Africa) have some of the lowest preparedness scores globally, indicating a potentially dangerous overlap of spark risk and spread risk. National income alone offers an incomplete and potentially misleading metric of preparedness.
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But what if moral considerations are excluded prostate surgery order generic penegra online, and rational self-interest is stressed This would at least have the advantage of appealing to prostate 30cc cheap penegra 100mg visa a broader range of potential supporters for the project prostate cancer 97 buy penegra 50 mg on-line. He pointed out that genocides typically generate refugee flows that can overwhelm neighboring countries and destabilize regions. Today, up to twenty-seven million people may also be "internally displaced" worldwide as a result of genocide. And what is the role of central actors, from the international community and organizations, to the concerned and potentially genocidal individual As political scientist Barbara Harff reminded us, "perpetrators of genocide often are repeat offenders, because elites and security forces may become habituated to mass killing as a strategic response to challenges to state security. Psychologist Ervin Staub pointed in similar fashion to "ideologies of antagonism" among communal groups, "the outcome of a long history of hostility and mutual violence. Few factors seem so operative in genocidal violence as economic upheaval and catastrophe. Economic crisis may undermine the legitimacy and administrative capacity of state authorities, who may be more likely to lash out genocidally as a means of maintaining power. Such crises also encourage the rise of rebellious, revolutionary, and secessionist movements. Social and political mobilization along these lines is not inherently bad and violence-provoking. Nonetheless, a healthy and nongenocidal society will, in place of or in addition to such mobilizations, include a range of "cross-cutting" forums, movements, and socialization mechanisms that encourage people to move beyond limited identifications to a more cosmopolitan vision. Such relations can help offset usand-them thinking, as Ervin Staub wrote: "To evolve an appreciation of alikeness and a feeling of connectedness, members of subgroups of society must live together, work together, play together; their children must go to school together. Political scientist Kal Holsti argues that "the most important [variable] is inclusiveness": There must be a deliberate policy by governments not to exclude specific groups from participating in the political system. In some cases excluded groups were thrown out of the country; in other cases they were killed in genocides or politicides; in yet other cases they were simply denied the vote or in other ways discriminated against. In the countries that have succeeded, there is an attempt to be politically inclusive. A standard feature of genocidal mobilization is hate propaganda, including in mass media, public political speech, personal websites, and graffiti. The proliferation of media organs and other institutions devoted to hate speech is usually identifiable, though an increase in frequency and/or intensity of annihilationist rhetoric may be harder to measure. Pluralistic societies encounter some of the same vexing questions as in the case of genocide denial (Chapter 14), notably: is it legitimate to suppress dissident speech Whereas denialism can be confronted with logical and empirical refutation, and includes a grey area of legitimate discussion and debate, hate propaganda directly incites violence. Suppressing ethnic hate propaganda in Rwanda, for instance, may run counter to cherished liberal principles; but I, for one, would not object to it. For example, an affirmative action policy (Bumiputra, or "sons of the soil") was instituted in Malaysia after ethnic rioting between Malays and ethnic Chinese. It proved acceptable to both groups, advancing Malays in areas where they were under-represented, while preserving the rights of the Chinese minority and stanching violence against it.
In the course of the 20% Wind Scenario process mens health ipad discount penegra 50 mg without prescription, two workshops were held to man health hu generic penegra 100mg without a prescription define and refine the work plan prostate cancer juicing recipes 100mg penegra with amex, present and discuss preliminary results, and obtain relevant input from key stakeholders external to the report preparation effort. In turn, these essential changes in the power generation and delivery process would involve supporting changes and capabilities in manufacturing, policy development, and environmental regulation. As shown in Figure 1-1, the chapters of this report address some of the requirements and impacts in each of these areas. Detailed discussions of the modeling process, assumptions, and results can be found in Appendices A through C. For additional information and documentation, see text box entitled "Wind Energy Deployment System Model Assumptions," Appendices A and B, and. Industry growth has since responded positively to policy incentives when they are in effect (see Figure 1-2). In 2006 alone, average turbine size increased by more than 11% over the 2005 level to an average size of 1. This domestic wind power has been installed across 35 states and delivers roughly 0. Europe took the lead in wind energy, propelled by aggressive renewable energy policies enacted between 1974 and 1985. As the global industry continued to grow into the 1990s, technological advances led to significant increases in turbine power and productivity. Although this intermittent policy support led to sporadic growth, business inefficiencies inherent in serving this choppy market inhibited investment and restrained market growth. To promote renewable energy systems, many states began requiring electricity suppliers to obtain a small percentage of their supply from renewable energy sources, with percentages typically increasing over time. After a decade of trailing Germany and Spain, the United States reestablished itself as the world leader in new wind energy in 2005. This resurgence is attributed to increasingly supportive policies, growing interest in renewable energy, and continued improvements in wind technology and performance. The United States retained its leadership of wind development in 2006 and, because of its very large wind resources, is likely to remain a major force in the highly competitive wind markets of the future. This ambitious growth could be achieved in many different ways, with varying challenges, impacts, and levels of success. This report examines one particular scenario for achieving this dramatic growth and contrasts it to another scenario that- for analytic simplicity-assumes no wind growth after 2006. At the same time, a great deal of uncertainty remains about the level of contribution that wind could or is likely to make. This results in an estimate, expressed in terms of parameters, of the impacts associated with increased reliance on wind energy generation under given assumptions. Annual and cumulative wind installations by 2030 the analysis was also simplified by assuming that the contributions to U. Broadly stated, this 20% scenario is designed to consider incremental costs while recognizing realistic constraints and considerations (see the "Considerations in the 20% Wind Scenario" sidebar in Appendix A). Specifically, the scenario describes the mix of wind resources that would need to be captured, the geographic distribution of wind power installations, estimated land needs, the required utility and transmission infrastructure, manufacturing requirements, and the pace of growth that would be necessary. Transmission and integration will add additional costs, which are discussed in Chapter 4. Electricity must be transmitted from where it is generated to areas of high electricity demand, using the existing transmission system or new transmission lines where necessary. As shown in Figure 1-6, the delivered cost of wind power increases when costs associated with connecting to the existing electric grid are included. The cost and performance assumptions of the 20% Wind Scenario are based on real market data from 2007. Cost and performance for all technologies either decrease or remain flat over time. Supply curve for wind energy-energy costs including connection to 10% of existing transmission grid capacity 1 Note: See Appendix B for wind technology cost and performance projections. In some cases, new transmission lines connecting high-wind resource areas to load centers could be cost-effective, and in other cases, high transmission costs could offset the advantage of land-based generation, as in the case of large demand centers along wind-rich coastlines. Readers should refer to Appendices A and B to see a more complete list of the modeling assumptions.