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Some scientists consider genetic engineering an extension of conventional breeding medications 247 purchase nitroglycerin 6.5 mg on-line, while others hold the view that it differs profoundly symptoms 0f diabetes best 2.5mg nitroglycerin. Conventional breeding develops a new plant variety by the process of selection medications used to treat bipolar generic nitroglycerin 2.5mg on-line, and genetic material that is already present within a species is expressed. The exception to this would be hybridization, wide crosses and horizontal gene transfer (Hansen, 2000). Genetic engineering allows the insertion of a gene, and this must be followed up by selection. A promoter gene from a virus is usually inserted to make the new gene express itself. This whole process is significantly different from conventional breeding, even if the goal is to insert genetic material from the same species. There is an increase in precision when the gene carrying the trait of interest is known. Also using genetic engineering techniques, the potential sources from which desirable traits may be obtained are increased. The entire span of genetic capabilities available among all biological organisms can potentially be used in any other organism. In nature, most offspring are viable, and in conventional breeding, scientists grow many plants and keep only a few with the most desirable traits. In the early development of genetic engineering, although cells containing the inserted gene of interest were selected, it was still necessary to grow whole plants from these cells to determine whether the gene was expressed giving the desired trait. A large percent of engineered cells were not viable or failed to produce the desired trait. In successive plant generations, only one in thousands (or millions) of cells is able to incorporate the desired trait and express this for generations without producing undesirable side effects. This indicates that genetic engineering is not as efficient as it is advertised to be (Hansen, 2000; Walden and Wingender, 1995). Genetic engineering controls the trait that is to be introduced, yet cannot control the location of introduction. Traditional breeding, however, occurs between organisms that share a recent evolutionary history, so shuffling occurs around alleles, different versions of the same gene. Traditional plant breeding combines many genes at one time, while in plant biotechnology, a single gene may be added to the commercial variety. Experiments have shown that many sequences are conserved among species, and the same gene confers the same trait in different species (Persley and Siedow, 1999). There are, thus, key scientific differences between genetic engineering and conventional breeding, in terms of the process and the genetic makeup of the product. This technology has been used to develop crops with pesticide resistance, improved yield, ability to use marginalized land, improved nutritional benefits, reduced environmental impact and pharmaceutical benefits like vaccines (Third World Academy of Sciences, 2000). Early products of agricultural biotechnology focused mainly on agronomic traits like those related to biotic stress: insect resistance, disease resistance (viral, bacteria, fungal, nematode) and weed-herbicide tolerance. Work has been done to provide relief from abiotic stresses like drought, cold, heat and poor soils, and to improve yields by nitrogen assimilation, starch biosynthesis and oxygen assimilation (Wilkinson, 1997). Research to improve quality traits has been developed in the areas of processing properties: extension of shelf life; altering reproductive methods by creating sex barriers, male sterility and seedlessness; production of nutraceutical plants with improved protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, etc. Improvements in taste, architecture, fiber content and in ornamentals, changing color, shelf life, morphology and fragrance are all quality traits geared for improvement using biotechnology. Novel crop products like oils with special properties, proteins and polymer production, as well as vaccine production in plants, are some of the future applications of agricultural biotechnology. Products found initially on the market would not be specialty items but staples like flour, meal or oil extracted from genetically modified crops. Commercial production of novel transgenic crops first focused on agronomic benefits like increased productivity of crops with reduction of production by decreasing the need for inputs of pesticides. The intense and expensive research and development of transgenic plants over two decades has led to the commercial production of new varieties over the last four years (Persley, 1999). Herbicide resistance has allowed the possibility of reducing chemical application of herbicides during large-scale farming. The application of agricultural biotechnology could mean an improvement in the quality of life, because new strains of plants, giving higher yields with fewer inputs, will be grown in a broader range of environments. Natural resources will be conserved, providing more nutritious products with a longer shelf life at an economical cost to consumers.

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By making these tumors Breakthroughs in Bioscience glow during surgery symptoms 2 buy nitroglycerin with a mastercard, their margins are likely to medicine ball slams generic nitroglycerin 6.5 mg visa be more visually obvious to symptoms for pneumonia generic nitroglycerin 6.5 mg fast delivery the surgeon. Typically, conventional imaging does not reveal an unresponsive tumor until several months following treatment-time that might have been better used receiving an alternative therapy. This also has the advantage of reducing the radiation exposure for patients during imaging procedures. Shown is an image of the abdominal region of a patient with bone cancer, seen as the white rod-like area on the lower left (1). Researchers have also begun to explore the potential of this imaging to detect the onset of arthritis before there has been much damage to the joints, allowing early treatment. Advances in Radionuclide Molecular Imaging in Myocardial Biology, Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. Biographies: Margie Patlak writes about biomedical research and health from the Philadelphia region. She has written frequently for the National Institutes of Health and the National Academy of Sciences, and currently works with a number of trade journals, such as Endocrine News and the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. He is Director of the Laboratory for Translational Anatomy of Degenerative Diseases and Developmental Disorders and Associate Director of Division of Integrative Anatomy Research Activities. Wisco was trained in the disciplines of anatomy, histology, neuroscience, embryology, neuropharmacology, and cell biology as a graduate student in the Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital/ Harvard University/Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He currently serves on the Scientific Advisory Board for the International Journal of Anatomical Variations, on the Educational Scholarship Committee for the International Association of Medical Science Educators, and is an academic mentor for the American Association of Anatomists. Breakthroughs in Bioscience 11 the Breakthroughs in Bioscience series is a collection of illustrated articles that explain recent developments in basic biomedical research and how they are important to society. Electronic versions of the articles are available in html and pdf format at the Breakthroughs in Bioscience website at: B Meeting Participation When you join the meeting, you will be placed in a waiting room until the meeting host admits you into the meeting. Please log in 15 minutes early (at 3:15) to ensure that you are admitted to the meeting before it starts (at 3:30). Your audio will be disabled by default when you enter the meeting; please refrain from turning on your microphone unless called upon by the Chair. However, it is anticipated that discussion will be limited due to the Zoom format of the meeting. Thus, participants are strongly encouraged to review the meeting materials in advance of the meeting and send questions to academicsenateoffice@ucsd. Your questions will be shared with the presenters so that they may address them in their presentations, and thus help to mitigate the challenge presented by a large Zoom meeting. Following discussion of items that require a vote, a poll will pop-up on your screen to vote. Primary Representatives and Alternate Representatives should coordinate their attendance and voting for this meeting. Both may attend; however, Alternate Representatives may only vote in the absence of the Primary Representative. C Additional Zoom Meeting Note Please use your actual first and last name with your Zoom account; the Senate Office must be able to establish your identity in order to admit you into a Representative Assembly meeting. Instructions on how to manage your Zoom profile can be found here: support. A quorum was present (see attached attendance sheet), along with other Academic Senate members and guests. Chair Constable welcomed everyone to the first Representative Assembly meeting of the 2020-2021 academic year. Chair Constable reviewed the Academic Senate Bylaws governing membership, privileges of the floor, and voting. Chair Constable explained that the Academic Senate is the primary vehicle through which faculty participate in shared governance. Chair Constable introduced Professor Tara Javidi as the San Diego Divisional Academic Senate Vice Chair.

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Decontaminate the skin with soap and water symptoms for hiv purchase 2.5mg nitroglycerin with mastercard, as outlined in Chapter 3 treatment variable buy nitroglycerin 2.5 mg with mastercard, General Principles medications list template generic nitroglycerin 6.5 mg free shipping. Given the corrosive nature of phenolic compounds such as creosote, efforts to use an adsorbent such as charcoal (or repeated use of charcoal) depend on whether there has been corrosive injury to the esophagus. Treat severe systemic creosote poisoning in an intensive care unit setting with appropriate supportive care including respiratory support, intravenous fluids, cardiac monitoring and renal function support as necessary. Examine the urine for protein and cells, and for "smoky" phenolic excretion products. If there are any signs or symptoms suggestive of mucosal pharyngeal or esophageal injury (visible burns in the oral mucosa, stridor, drooling, dysphagia, refusal to swallow or abdominal pain) following inadvertent or unintentional ingestion, those patients should also have an endoscopy. Recognized systemic toxic mechanisms in mammals include a corrosive effect on the gastrointestinal tract (particularly from high concentrations of the free acid), cardiomyopathy and vascular injury leading to shock, and central nervous system injury, causing convulsions and respiratory depression. A single case has been reported of a lethal poisoning in a previously healthy 21-year-old man who died after ingestion of 7-8 grams of endothall. In this patient, hemorrhage and edema were noted in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs. If ingested, consider gastrointestinal decontamination as outlined in Chapter 3, but use treatment procedures appropriate for ingestions of corrosives (strong acids and alkalis). Due to the corrosive nature of this agent, gastric lavage is usually contraindicated, because of the risk of esophageal perforation. Treat severe systemic endothall poisoning in an intensive care unit setting with appropriate supportive care, including respiratory support, intravenous fluids, cardiac monitoring and renal function support as necessary. Examine the urine for protein and cells and for "smoky" phenolic excretion products. Metaldehyde Toxicology Metaldehyde is a 4-unit cyclic polymer of acetaldehyde long used to kill slugs and snails, which are attracted to it without the use of bait. Occasional poisonings of animals and children have resulted from ingestion of pellets intended as molluscicide, and tablets designed as a combustible fuel ("meta-fuel") have also been responsible for human poisonings. Both acetaldehyde and metaldehyde produced similar effects in dogs; however, acetaldehyde was not detected in the plasma or urine of the metaldehyde-poisoned dogs. ConfirmationofPoisoning Metaldehyde can be measured in the serum, although there are very few reports of levels among poisoned humans. Saito described a method to measure metaldehyde in serum using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. If ingested, consider gastrointestinal decontamination as outlined in Chapter 3, General Principles. Treat severe systemic metaldehyde poisoning in an intensive care unit setting with appropriate supportive care, including respiratory support, intravenous fluids, cardiac monitoring and renal function support as necessary. Early and aggressive treatment of all of the above may be life saving following a massive ingestion. Order liver function tests and urine sediment examination to assess liver and kidney injury in poisoned patients. Sodium Chlorate Sodium chlorate is used in agriculture as a defoliant, nonselective contact herbicide and semi-permanent soil sterilant. Because of its explosive nature, it must be formulated with a water-soluble, fire-retardant material such as sodium metaborate, soda ash, magnesium chloride or urea. Toxicology Sodium chlorate is irritating to skin, eyes and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Even though gastrointestinal absorption is alsoinefficient,severepoisoning,sometimesfatal,followsingestionofatoxicdose, saidtobeabout20gramsintheadulthuman. The principal mechanisms of toxicity are hemolysis, coagulation disturbances methemoglobin formation, cardiac arrhythmia (partly secondary to hyperkalemia) and renal tubular injury. Plasma and urine are dark brown from presence of free hemoglobin and methemoglobin. Chlorate not only forms methemoglobin, it also destroys erythrocytes and the enzymatic systems in the process. However, chlorate will denature the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which will in turn render methylene blue ineffective.