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She concludes that approximately 75% of her constituents oppose stricter gun control laws antibiotic resistance of staphylococcus aureus buy ivermectine 3mg fast delivery. An anthropology professor wants to infection z movie cheap ivermectine 3 mg fast delivery compare attitudes toward premarital sex of physical science majors and social science majors antibiotic immunity buy 3 mg ivermectine otc. She administers a questionnaire to her Anthropology 437, Comparative Human Sexuality class. She finds no appreciable difference in attitudes between the two majors, so she concludes that the two student groups are about the same in their views about premarital sex. A questionnaire is mailed to a simple random sample of 500 household addresses in a city. Ten are returned as bad addresses, 63 are returned completed, and the rest are not returned. The researcher analyzes the 63 cases and reports that they represent a "simple random sample of city households. A principal in a large high school wants to sample student attitudes toward a proposal that seniors must pass a general achievement test in order to graduate. In June, after six months of operation, the owner applied for a loan to improve the building. She decides to calculate the average daily receipt based on a sample of the daily records and multiply that by the number of days of operation in a year. The average daily receipt for this sample was then used to estimate the yearly receipts. Age for legal alcohol You want to investigate the opinions students at your school have about whether the age for legal drinking of alcohol should be 18. Write a question to ask about this in a sample survey in such a way that results would be biased. Quota sampling An interviewer stands at a street corner and conducts interviews until obtaining a quota in various groups representing the relative sizes of the groups in the population. For instance, the quota might be 50 factory workers, 100 housewives, 60 elderly people, 30 Hispanics, and so forth. In the context of this study, describe how you could explain to someone who has never studied statistics that association does not imply causation. Why do researchers use randomization in such experiments, rather than letting the subjects choose which treatment they will receive? When patients enrolling in the study are told the purpose of the study, explain why they may be reluctant to be randomly assigned to one of the treatments. If a researcher planning the study thinks the new treatment is likely to be better, explain why he or she may have an ethical dilemma in proceeding with the study. There is exactly the same proportion of women in the sample as is in the population. You keep sampling until you have a fixed number of people having various characteristics. It is impossible to get the random number 00000 or 99999, since they are not random sequences. If we get 20001 for the first random number, for the second random number, that number is less likely to occur than the other possible five-digit random numbers. Since the sample is random, it is impossible that it will be nonrepresentative, such as having only females in the sample. In studies without randomization or other controls for bias, the new therapy provided improved treatment 58% of the time. This result suggests it is better not to use randomization in medical studies, because it is harder to show that new ideas are beneficial. Some newspaper articles that suggest a particular food, drug, or environmental agent is harmful or beneficial should be viewed skeptically, unless we learn more about the statistical design and analysis for the study. The randomized studies were poorly conducted, or they would have found the new treatment to be better much more than 9% of the time. A vaccine is claimed to be effective in preventing a rare disease that occurs in about one of every 100, 000 people.
Risk of Performance Errors Due to access virus buy ivermectine with visa Sleep Loss antibiotics for dogs 3 mg ivermectine mastercard, Circadian Desynchronization antibiotic used for uti discount ivermectine 3 mg otc, Fatigue, and Work Overload 89 Chapter 3 Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions Figure 3-1. Performance Errors Relative to Sleep Loss and Extended Wakefulness A meta-analysis (Category I) that was conducted by Pilcher and Huffcutt (1996) examined data that were drawn from 19 research studies to characterize the effects of sleep deprivation on specific types of human performance. Motor skills, cognitive skills, and mood were assessed in terms of: partial sleep deprivation (also known as sleep restriction), which is defined as fewer than 5 hours of sleep in a 24-hour period for 1 or more days; short-term total sleep deprivation (no sleep attained for fewer than 45 hours); and long-term sleep deprivation (no sleep attained for a period in excess of 45 hours). These researchers found that sleep-deprived subjects performed considerably worse on motor tasks, cognitive tasks, and measures of mood than did nonsleep-deprived subjects. The greatest impact on cognitive performance was seen from multiple days of partial sleep deprivation, although short- and long-term sleep deprivation also showed an effect. Meta-analyses of sleep deprivation effects in medical residents found deficits in both laboratory tasks and clinical tasks (Philibert, 2005). The magnitude of the chronic partial sleep loss that has been experienced by astronauts in flight (Barger and Czeisler, 2008; Monk et al. Performance can be affected whether sleep loss is in the form of a night of substantially reduced sleep, a night of total sleep deprivation, or a series of less drastic, but more chronic, restricted sleep hours. Chronic reduction of sleep can impact performance in a manner that is similar to that of total sleep deprivation. Sleep restriction conditions included 14 consecutive nights of 8, 6, or 4 hours of sleep opportunity, with actual sleep quantity validated by polysomnography recordings. Subjects who were subjected to sleep restriction conditions underwent neurobehavioral assessments every 2 hours during their scheduled wakefulness, while subjects who were subjected to the sleep deprivation condition were tested every 2 hours throughout their total 88 hours of sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, by the end of the 14 days of sleep restriction, subjects in the 4- and 6-hour sleep period conditions reported feeling only slightly sleepy. As these reports were taken when performance was at its lowest level, this indicates that the subjects may no longer have been aware of their performance deficits because of inadequate recovery sleep (Van Dongen et al. Subjects who spent 4 hours in bed reached levels of impairment at 6 days and of severe impairment at 11 days. Interestingly, it appears that subjects who spent 8 hours in bed approached levels of impairment. Similar performance effects resulting from chronically restricted sleep can also be seen in the Category I study by Belenky et al. Subjects who spent 3 hours in bed reached levels of severe impairment at 5 days, while subjects who spent 5 hours in bed reached levels of impairment at 4 days. A compelling Category I laboratory study from Williamson and Feyer (2000) used a cross-over randomized control design to observe cognitive and motor performance after minor sleep deprivation to performance after alcohol consumption. All subjects participated in both alcohol consumption and sleep deprivation, and the order of testing was counterbalanced so that half of the subjects participated in the alcohol consumption part first while the other half participated in the sleep deprivation part first. To avoid carry-over effects from one condition to the next, subjects were provided with a night of rest in a motel between each condition. Similar studies that compare performance after a time of sleep deprivation to performance with elevated blood alcohol levels have confirmed these results (Dawson and Reid, 1997; Arnedt et al. These findings are compelling as the duration of wakefulness (17 hours), which results in decrements that are similar to those that are induced by a 0. Performance Errors Relative to Sleep Desynchronization and Work Overload Research suggests that circadian desynchronization and work overload may also impair performance. Body temperature is at its highest near the circadian peak and lowest near the circadian minimum (this is when the body is driven to sleep). It has long been recognized that a positive relationship exists between daily rhythms of body temperature and neurobehavioral performance and alertness in humans (Wright et al. Performance on validated measures was evaluated every 2 hours, beginning 2 hours after the scheduled wake time. The protocol, therefore, assessed performance when the body is normally driven to sleep (which is related to the point at which body temperature at its lowest) relative to performance during normal waking hours, and allowed for assessment of the effects of body temperature independent of (and associated with) sleep hours and time of day. During the circadian peak (when body temperature is high), performance and alertness are high; conversely, near the circadian phase of low body temperature, performance and alertness are low. These results have been replicated in other forced desynchrony and extended wakefulness laboratory protocols (Wyatt et al. Studies in the medical industry, where highly educated and trained individuals.
The observation is a regression outlier antibiotics and alcohol purchase ivermectine, falling quite far from the trend that the rest of the data follow antibiotics for sinus infection in india purchase generic ivermectine online. When both of these happen antibiotic resistance 10 years 3 mg ivermectine with visa, the line tends to be pulled toward that data point and away from the trend of the rest of the points. Not all regression outliers are influential in affecting the correlation or slope. Example 13 Influential outliers Higher Education and Higher Murder Rates Picture the Scenario Table 3. High school: Percentage of the adult residents who have at least a high school education. Does any observation look like it could be influential in its effect on the regression line? Check whether the observation identified in part a actually is influential by finding the line again without that observation. It satisfies both conditions for an observation to be influential: It has a relatively extreme value on the explanatory variable (college), and it is a regression outlier, falling well away from the linear trend of the other points. By contrast, when we fit the regression line only n to the 50 states, excluding the observation for D. Caution Always construct a scatterplot before finding a correlation coefficient or fitting a regression line. The regression line then makes it seem, misleadingly, as if the murder rate increases when the percentage with a college education increases. The regression line for the 50 states alone better represents the overall negative trend. Was the observation recorded incorrectly, or is it merely different from the rest of the data in some way? It is often a good idea to refit the regression line without it to see if it has a large effect, as we did in this last example. Correlation Does Not Imply Causation In a regression analysis, suppose that as x goes up, y also tends to go up (or go down). But just observing an association between two variables is not enough to imply a causal connection. Example 14 Correlation and causation Education and Crime Picture the Scenario Figure 3. Education was measured as the percentage of residents aged at least 25 in the county who had at least a high school degree. Crime rate was measured as the number of crimes in that county in the past year per 1000 residents. Question Does more education cause more crime, or does more crime cause more education, or possibly neither? Unlike the previous example, there is no obviously influential observation causing the positive correlation between education and 132 Chapter 3 Association: Contingency, Correlation, and Regression higher crime rate. But, another variable measured for these counties is urbanization, measured as the percentage of the residents who live in metropolitan areas. Question to Explore From the positive correlation between crime rate and education, can we conclude that having a more highly educated populace causes the crime rate to go up? So, perhaps the reason for the positive correlation between education and crime rate is that education tends to be greater in more highly urbanized counties, but crime rates also tend to be higher in such counties. Insight For counties with similar levels of urbanization, the association between crime rate and education may look quite different. It shows a negative trend between crime rate and education for counties having urbanization = 0 (none of the residents living in a metropolitan area), a separate negative trend for counties having urbanization = 50, and a separate negative trend for counties having urbanization = 100. If we ignore the urbanization values and look at all the points, however, we see a positive trend-higher crime rate tending to occur with higher education levels, as reflected by the overall positive correlation. Crime rate Counties with urbanization = 100 Counties with urbanization = 50 Counties with urbanization = 0 Education Figure 3. Question Sketch lines that represent (a) the overall positive relationship between crime rate and education, and (b) the negative relationship between crime rate and education for counties having urbanization = 0. In Example 14, urbanization influenced the association between crime rate and education. Whenever we observe a correlation between variables x and y, there may be a third variable correlated with both x and y that is responsible for their association. Example 15 Lurking variable Ice Cream and Drowning Picture the Scenario the Gold Coast of Australia, south of Brisbane, is famous for its beaches.
With this procedure antimicrobial use guidelines generic ivermectine 3mg with mastercard, the patient learns how to infection treatment purchase ivermectine 3mg free shipping relax and how to antibiotics for puppy uti order ivermectine on line amex recognize and pinpoint tension and relaxation in the body to identify tension and reduce its influence before each reaches high levels/impairment. In teaching patients muscle relaxation, you should first explain the reason for using muscle relaxation and how it will benefit the patient (rationale). Inform the patient that sensations of tension and relaxation cannot occur at the same time. This principle is 74 critical, and you should ensure that patients fully understand how this applies to their current difficulties. Explain to the patient that tension often builds gradually without conscious awareness. Learning to detect the initial signs of an increase is an important step towards avoiding a full- blown occurrence of tension. Over time patients become increasingly skilled at identifying stress earlier and earlier. A brief word of caution: If at any point during the technique a patient experiences pain, alter or completely discontinue the technique. If the patient experiences chronic pain in any part of the body, it is best to avoid the tensing component for muscles in that area; just do the relaxing component when the patient gets to those muscle groups. Throughout the procedure, it is important to concentrate on the sensations produced by the different exercises. Asking the patient to describe bodily sensations is very important for the learning process. Statements or phrases from you might include: "What are you noticing about your body right now? Check to be sure that the patient can identify tension in each group before moving on to the next. Make a fist and tense biceps; pull wrist upward, while pushing elbow down against the arm of chair or bed. Lift eyebrows as high as possible, bite teeth together, and pull corners of mouth tightly. Pull chin down toward chest; at the same time, try to prevent it from actually touching the chest. At the same time, pull the shoulder blades back and together, trying to make them touch. At the same time make the stomach hard by pressing it out, as if someone were going to hit you in the stomach. After relaxation training, question the patient about his or her reaction to the musclerelaxation exercise. The patient should use regularly scheduled homework to practice in a nondistracting environment. When he or she has learned to relax in a calm environment, it should be easier to relax in more distracting situations, whenever he or she notices tension developing. Deep-Breathing Technique Another physiological-based relaxation technique is deep breathing. Deep breathing focuses on reducing rapid and shallow (ineffective) breathing that often occurs during periods of stress, worry, or anxiety. Rapid and shallow breaths can lead the patient to have decreased oxygen in the system, which can cause hyperventilation, dizziness, lightheadedness, or decreased ability to concentrate. Alternatively, taking a deep, full breath can produce a feeling of calmness or slowing by increasing oxygen rich blood flow. By asking the patient to attend to breathing and changing the rate and way he or she breathes, you enable him or her to be able to feel more relaxed and function more -rich blood, ) as well as the mind (feelings of calmness). It can also strengthen muscles in the chest and stomach, which can make it easier to breathe on a daily basis. Indicate why Deep Breathing was chosen and provide an overview of the procedures and potential benefits. Step #2: Ask the patient to put one hand on the abdomen, with the little finger about 1 inch above the navel, and to place one hand on the chest. Step #3: Ask the patient to pay attention to his or her breathing (pause for several seconds to allow the patient the opportunity to assess breathing) and ask him/her to tell you which hand is doing more of the moving?
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