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Students must submit a curriculum worksheet that has been approved by their faculty adviser and the director depression test kostenlos online discount asendin 50 mg on line. George Mason University 2016-2017 Official University Catalog 689 Courses applied to anxiety chest pains cheap 50 mg asendin mastercard the degree are subject to bipolar mood disorder 2 purchase asendin from india the following restrictions: a maximum of 6 credits may be earned through independent study or directed readings and research courses; a maximum of 6 credits may be taken through the Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area; a maximum of 15 credits may be transfer credits; a maximum of 6 of the transfer credits may be from other accredited institutions. Transfer credits include credits taken before first enrolling as an admitted degree-seeking student (at another institution, in another Mason graduate program, or in Mason nondegree status) or credits taken at another institution after admission to the degree program through study abroad or study elsewhere (which requires prior written approval of the director and the dean). Additional information may be found in the Academic Policies section of this catalog. Students electing to complete the concentration in community college teaching with a thesis will complete 38 credits. In addition, it may be an appropriate graduate credential for some faculty currently teaching in community colleges. In addition to required courses and a knowledge area, students pursuing this concentration are required to take a one-credit proposal course and complete a project or thesis. The concentration in community college teaching is administered by the Higher Education Program. They may include core courses listed above not already used to meet the 12 credit requirement. Computational social scientists investigate complex social phenomena such as economic markets, traffic control, and political systems by simulating the interactions of the many actors in such systems on computers. They hope to gain insights which will lead to better management of the behavior of the larger social systems, i. The intractability of many social problems calls for the new approaches provided by computational social science. Project managers of such teams, overseeing all elements of project design and execution, tend to hold PhDs. Because of the broad spectrum of social science phenomena, methodologies, and student backgrounds, there is a large pool of potential courses. Students who elect to complete a 4-credit project or thesis take 9 elective credits. A sustainability education lies at the intersection of environmental science, engineering, economics, business, public policy, social justice, and many other areas. Energy required to fuel all of these endeavors is a crucial component of sustainability. A discipline based on ethnographic fieldwork, folklore offers students a chance to work in communities and collect living traditional materials that are critical to human identity and values. Interdisciplinary by nature, folklore thrives on local particularities and compelling global connections. This course of study prepares students for careers in cultural agencies, governmental organizations, teaching institutions, and advanced study in the humanities. Students pursuing this concentration must complete at least 6 credits of courses from outside the English Department. Specialization topics include public folklore (museums, archives, arts and humanities councils, and nonprofit organizations); folklore (ethnicity and immigration); folklore and literature; folklore and the teaching of writing and literature; folklore and history; and folklore and conflict resolution. Students can also opt for open specialization, with courses chosen in consultation with advisor. Possibilities include folklore and editing, applied storytelling, folklore and mythology, folklore and art history, folklore and gender studies, and folklore and communication. One to two elective courses (3 to 6 credits) Electives require the prior written approval of a faculty advisor. Within the concentration, students may choose to emphasize administration or student affairs. The number of elective credits will vary depending on the number of project credits. Students usually choose this option because traditional graduate programs do not meet their specific goals.
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The reduction was attributed to depression knee pain purchase asendin 50mg online decreased summer fallow and increased adoption of no-till practices in Canadian prairies depression symptoms checklist pdf cheap asendin online mastercard. Integration of practices that can increase soil carbon stocks include 1) maintaining land cover with vegetation bipolar depression 5htp order cheapest asendin and asendin. The magnitude and longevity of carbon stock changes have strong environmental and regional differences that are subject to subsequent changes in management practices. Conversely, practices that convert lands from perennial systems, such as converting retired or other lands to row crops, consistently show release of stored carbon back to the atmosphere (Gelfand et al. Other management practices with the potential to release stored carbon are inadequate return of crop residues. Numerous estimates of the rates and potential magnitude of long-term soil carbon accumulation, storage, and sequestration related to management have been reviewed and presented. Management practices that increase carbon inputs include planting high-residue crops and returning crop biomass to the soil; minimizing or eliminating summer fallow (particularly bare fallow); adding cover crops to reduce winter fallow; extending and intensifying cropping rotations. Numerous publications have reported that no-tillage practices store more carbon in soil than those using conventional tillage. Conversely, others have disputed this claim, especially when including soil carbon measurements deeper than 30 cm. No-tillage and other conservation practices were developed to control soil erosion, and this co-benefit is well established. Likewise, studies using eddy covariance techniques report divergent responses to tillage. Collectively, the evidence indicates that adoption of no tillage may store more carbon, especially in the soil surface, compared to storage with conventional tillage. However, conclusively measuring short-term changes is difficult because of soil heterogeneity and slow rates of change (also discussed in Ch. From a carbon emissions perspective, biofuels have received a great deal of attention because of their potential to produce a more carbon neutral liquid fuel relative to fossil fuels. Typically, cellulosic biomass conversion technologies are considered too expensive to compete with liquid fuels derived from other sources (Winchester and Reilly 2015), but innovations at all levels are advancing conversion technology. Co-Benefits of Conservation Management Many common conservation practices improve soil aeration, aggregate stability, and nutrient reserves, while modulating temperature and water and increasing microbial activity and diversity. As a result, soil under some conservation-management regimes can be more resilient to climate variability and more productive (Lal 2015; Lehman et al. Plant material maintained on the soil surface improves soil physical properties. These improvements result in enhanced soil and water quality and soil productivity (Franzluebbers 2008). Cover crops improve soil health by increasing microbial diversity, biomass, and activity (Bronick and Lal 2005; Lehman et al. Thus, there are management practices that simultaneously benefit a number of soil health and carbon storage attributes. Methane mitigation practices for livestock include practices related to reducing emissions from enteric fermentation. Legume silages also may have an advantage over grass silage because of their lower fiber content and the additional benefit of reducing or replacing inorganic nitrogen fertilizer use. Because these additives can be toxic to the animals, proper adaptation is critical. However, nitrates may slightly increase N2O emissions, which decreases their overall mitigating effect by 10% to 15% (Petersen et al. Similar or even greater mitigation potential has been reported for beef cattle (Romero-Perez et al. Mitigation of carbon emissions also may have tradeoffs with other pollutants including other gaseous emissions, nutrient leaching to groundwater, and nutrient runoff to surface waters. Mitigation strategies must be considered from a whole-farm perspective to ensure a net environmental benefit (Montes et al. Extracting the carbon from manure reduces storage emissions, and the reduction in purchased gas and electricity provides other off-farm environmental benefits.
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The heart normally extracts free fatty acids preferentially from the coronary perfusion for oxidative energy production bipolar depression 5dht buy asendin 50 mg without prescription. Greater energy is consumed in metabolizing free fatty acids than in metabolizing glucose depression zoloft proven 50mg asendin. The much more common condition of ischemia with acidosis results in little anaerobic energy anxiety chest pains cheap asendin 50mg without prescription. Under most steady-state circumstances, the heart is dependent on the availability of molecular oxygen to continue its function. The oxygen and energy consumption of the heart is determined principally through its contractile activity. Three major independent hemodynamic or mechanical factors contribute to myocardial oxygen consumption by the heart: heart rate, the tension developed by the heart during contraction or systole, and the contractile state or contractility of the heart. Only 10% or less of the total oxygen consumption of the heart is used to maintain functions other than contraction; if the heart ceases to beat but is kept alive, it will consume approximately 10% of the normal amount of oxygen. A very modest reserve exists for "storing" oxygen, oxidative capacity, or anaerobic substrate. Because oxygen consumption is determined principally by the contractile activity of cardiac muscle, a more rapid heart rate requires greater oxygen consumption. If the heart rate rises from 60 to 180 beats per minute during exercise or stress, oxygen consumption will increase three-fold over the basal value. Myocardial oxygen consumption is also related to contractile tension and the contractile state as indexed by the total pressure-volume area. Oxygen consumption is linearly correlated with the total pressure-volume area, so if the heart were to contract under isovolumic conditions because of infinitely high afterload resistance to ejection, all the energy produced by the heart would be internal, potential energy because no external work would be performed despite the oxygen consumed. As tension decreases to within the physiologic afterload range, external stroke work is performed and potential energy is also produced; oxygen consumption is proportional to the total of the two. A simpler index of myocardial oxygen consumption for an intact heart is the rate-pressure product. With this index, the heart rate is multiplied by the peak systolic pressure and used as an index of oxygen demand or consumption. Although this index ignores the contribution of the contractile state, the rate-pressure product provides a reasonable index of oxygen consumption when the contractile state is unchanged or relatively stable. With an increase in the contractile state, an additional obligatory increase in oxygen consumption is produced above what is related to heart rate and tension. The volume of coronary or myocardial blood flow under normal conditions is largely regulated by myocardial oxygen demands. Because the heart extracts 90% or more of the oxygen needed from the coronary blood, the striking increases in oxygen consumption that occur with high tension development, higher heart rates, and/or high contractility are met almost entirely by increases in coronary blood flow. High myocardial oxygen consumption and high coronary flow are characteristic of exercise. An ejecting beat at low filling volume (left) has a lower oxygen consumption than an isovolumic beat at the same filling volume (second from the left). The non-zero y-axis intercept indicates the substantial energy requirements for basal metabolism and for calcium cycling, which are not directly related to energy for force generation. A second control of the magnitude of coronary blood flow under increased workload or demand conditions is nitric oxide, which is produced by coronary vascular endothelial cells and has a direct local vasodilating effect on coronary arteries and the more distal bed. Nitric oxide is a byproduct in a number of reactions that lead to an increase in the activity of nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme that produces nitric oxide from the amino acid L-arginine. Coronary artery mechanical changes also contribute to regulation of coronary flow. As coronary arteries are stretched by higher luminal pressure, they constrict; as pressure within the coronary artery is reduced, the artery dilates. These very potent changes, which help maintain coronary blood flow under circumstances of altered coronary flow hemodynamics but maintained oxygen demands, are termed autoregulatory mechanisms for coronary blood flow. In addition to the metabolic and other factors that lead to coronary vasodilatation, a series of factors can lead to coronary arterial vasoconstriction. The exact roles of these vasoconstricting factors in health are unclear, but in disease these factors may have a profoundly important effect. A local regulating factor is the endothelin system, which consists of peptides synthesized and controlled locally within small arteries or arterioles that have a profound vasoconstricting effect on the resistance arteries within the coronary circulation. Constricting endothelins may be produced at the site of coronary artery atherosclerotic lesions and lead to vasoconstriction at those sites.