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Theory of optimal coding predicts early V1 circuits the theory starts with an observed property of natural scenes cholesterol diet chart india discount tricor 160mg without prescription, namely that their spatial and temporal correlations produce power spectra that tend to cholesterol lowering foods mayo clinic purchase 160mg tricor amex decay as 1/(frequency)2 (chapter 8) cholesterol medication causing organ failure buy tricor paypal. This means, for example, that trees (up close) and forest (at a distance) show the same shaped distribution of correlations. Given this statistical property, there exists an optimal way to represent any particular scene-by concentrating the activity that specifies that scene in the fewest units-a boon for any designer! The optimal unit, actually a weighting function termed Gabor filter, optimally represents spatial position and spatial frequency. These two variables are reciprocal, so an element that is larger in space is narrower in spatial frequency, and vice versa. The linear filter that occupies the smallest possible volume in both domains is the Gabor (Daugman, 1985; Marcelja, 1980). Put another way, the Gabor filter strikes the optimal balance between two conflicting demands: integrating across space to establish the polarity and 338 Chapter 12 scale of intensity changes, and pinpointing within space to establish location. This seems like an excessive number of filters, but there are roughly 40 cortical neurons at the first stage for every cone photoreceptor, and this explains why: overrepresentation, as will be further explained, constitutes an efficient code. Thus, theory predicts: (1) an efficient type of receptive field for the first integration in V1; (2) its optimal dimensions; (3) the optimal number and proportion of filter types. These predictions match astonishingly well the actual properties of neurons that integrate the relay cell input (Jones & Palmer, 1987). Integrating via insecure synapses the cortical neuron that integrates inputs from a line of thalamic relay cells is the famous "simple cell" (Hubel & Wiesel, 1962). Its dendrites branch within the stratum of brisk-sustained thalamic input and collect from about 30 relay cells with overlapping, linearly aligned receptive fields (Kara & Reid, 2003). Crucially, the simple cell must not respond to isolated firing of a single relay cell. Rather, it should fire only when the line of relay cells that form its input fire together, and thereby report a linear feature in the scene (Wang et al. Thus, compared to the thalamus, where the main retinal input causes more than 50% of the output spikes (Weyand, 2007), the relay cell input to a simple cell reduces "synaptic security" by about 20-fold. In short, the synaptic design changes from quasi-secure at the thalamus to insecure at the cortex. Each relay cell contributes approximately six contacts to a simple cell, so the linear band of 30 relay cells, provides about 180 contacts (Costa & Martin, 2011). To reliably fire one spike the simple cell requires synchronous release, amounting to approximately 100 vesicles within about 10 ms (Frick et al. Therefore, each synapse needs to release one vesicle with p ~ Beyond the Retina 339 0. This design, where 30 quasi-synchronous input spikes trigger one output spike, "sparsifies" the response by 30-fold and signifies an edge. To encode the predicted range of spatial frequencies, simple cells integrate parallel bands of relay cells that share the same orientation but are wired alternately for bright or dark contrasts. This expands integration in the dimension orthogonal to the orientation bands, while preserving spatial resolution (figure 12. Simple cells express up to four bright domains arranged variously with similar numbers of dark domains to produce over 30 different patterns- and more, considering a rarer class of "periodic" cells with up to six bright and seven dark domains (Mullikin et al. The relay cell axon terminal needs to provide sufficient active zones to allow an insecure connection with all the many simple cells that are needed for optimal tiling of natural scenes. Some contacts are reserved for inhibitory neurons, which constitute about 10% of cells in this stratum, but this leaves sufficient contacts for several hundred simple cells of different orientations and bandwidths.
This also underlies the mechan ism involved in lying cholesterol levels total order tricor canada, which - certain opinions notwithstanding - cor responds to high cholesterol levels chart australia cheap 160mg tricor otc various forms of deception found throughout the animal kingdom cholesterol levels range australia discount tricor 160mg without a prescription. I n what follows, the six species of signs that seem to occur most frequently in con temporary semiotics will be discussed, provisionally rede- Six Species of Signs 43 fin ed, and illustrated not only from anthroposemiotic systems (i. But it is equally im portant to grasp that the hierarchic principle is inherent in the architecture of any species of sign. For instance, a verbal symbol, such as an imperative, is commonly also endowed wi th a signal value. An emblem, which is a subspecies of symbol, may be partly iconic, such as the flag of the United States, since its seven red horizontal stripes al ternating with six white ones stand for each founding col ony, whereas i ts fifty white stars in the single blue can ton corre spond to each state in the Union. A primarily indexical sign, like a clock, acquires a discernible symbolic conte nt in addition if the timepiece happens to be Big Ben. To recapi tulate, aspec ts of a sign necessarily co-occur in an envi ron men t-sensitive hierarchy. Since all signs, of course, e n ter into complex syn tagmatic as well as paradigmatic contrasts and opposi tions, it is their place both in the web of a concre the text and the 44 Signs: An I n troduc tion to Semiotics network of an abstract system that is decisive as to which aspec t will p redominate in a given context at a particular moment, a fact which leads directly to the probl e m of levels, so familiar to linguis tics - being an absolute prerequisi the for any typology - but as yet far from developed in the other branches of semiotics. This impor tan t issue (see Lotman and Uspenskij 1 973; Meletinsky and Segal 1 9 7 1) can only be pointe d out here. The sign is legi timately, if loosely, labelled after the aspect that ranks predominan t. Signal The signal is a sign which mechanically (naturally) or conven tion;:tHy (artificially) tI;iggers some reaction on the part of a receiver. Note that the receiver can be either a machine or an o rganism, conceivably, even a personified supernatural (Sebeok 1 9 72b: 5 1 4). A most interesting and productive re-examination of the con c e p t of signal is to be found in pazukhin (1 972). His argument and resultant definition, which resembles, but is not identical with, the one given above, rest on the development of a series of oppo sitions, stemming fro m the need to distinguish the physical, or technological, n o tion of signal fro m the one prevalen t in the hu m anities and social scie nces - briefly, from a purely semiotic conception; and the need, on the one hand, to separate physical p henomen a which are signals from the class of non-signals, while, on the o ther hand, to discriminate signals from signs. A more Six Species of Signs 45 se rious error is to forget that one must constantly deal with aspects of signs: to repeat, a verbal command is very likely to have both a sym bol-aspect and a signal-aspect, and the sign in question will os cillate between the two poles according to the context of its d elivery. I t may be well to recall what Buhler did say about the signal within the framework of his model. By contrast, the symptom has to do with the source, whose inner behaviour it expresses; and the symbol relates to the designation (Buhler 1 934: 28). I n m y opinion, i Us essen tial, first of all, t o realize that the relation o f signal t o sign is that o f a marked category to a n unmarked o n e, that i s, precisely that o f a species t o a genus to which it belongs, as Buhler also claimed. Secondly, pazukhin introduces and discusses in detail what he calls two m odes of control, both of which are inter actions based on the idea of causal relationship: direct co n trol and block-and-release control. All dynamical action, or action by brute force, physical or psychical, either takes place between two subjects. Signaling activity, in its simplest form, is produced by an individual organism; it represen ts information; it is mediated by a physical carrier, and it is perceived and responded to by one or m ore individuals. Like the stimulus even t, of which signalling behaviour is a special case, this kind of behaviour releases more energy than is used in signaling. I completely e ndorse the elimination of all three factors from a viable defini tion of signal. The term is commo nplace in studies of animal communication (Burkhardt 1 967, Sebeok 1 968, 1 9 72a: 1 35-6 1), where it is often used in terchangeably with a seldom defined zoosemiotic prime, display. Symptom A symptom is a compulsive, automatic, non-arbi trary sign, such that the signifier coupled with the signified in the manner of a natural link. A syndrome is a rule-governed configuration of sym p toms with a stable designatum. I t is a peculiarity of symptoms that their denotata are generally different for the addresser (i. Symptomatology, or semeiology (Sebeok 1 973b), even tually developed into a branch of m edicine with a specialized threefold preoccupation with diagnostics, focusing on the here and now, and its twin temporal projections into the anamnestic past and the prognostic future. Barthes assigns the symptom to the category that Hjelmslev called the substance of the signifier, and then goes on to argue that a symp tom turns into a sign only wh e n it e n ters in the context of clinical discourse, just whe n this transformation i (1 925: 337-55).
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Plasticity eventually tapers off but persists to high cholesterol foods bacon buy generic tricor 160mg online some degree cholesterol ratio diabetes order tricor 160mg amex, which is why a pensioner can learn a new musical instrument or a new language cholesterol vs fatty acid generic tricor 160 mg on line. But as resculpting slows with age, early memories and habits tend to stabilize, and new ones are established more slowly. Specializing Learning is designed to process, store, retrieve, and resculpt information at the same site: the synapse. Moreover, specialization extends to the individual hemispheres: languages are learned primarily on the left and music primarily on the right, motor skills (handedness) are learned commonly on the right, and so on. Motor asymmetry is marked in humans-where it can exploit direct connections from motor cortex to individual motor neurons. This pathway is essential for fine control of individual fingers and effective use of our uniquely opposable thumb. The direct corticomotorneuronal connections are most highly developed in humans (Kuypers, 1981; Rathelot & Strick, 2009). Thus, even if other apes had the patience to practice the violin, they would lack the essential fine motor control. Because one brain has limited capacity and requires constant practice to maintain its particular skills, an efficient community will support specialization across brains: butcher, baker, doctor, spiritual leader. That requires kindnesses that encourage trust and suspicions that thwart trickery. Education Each brain expresses different splice variants of myriad synaptic proteins that serve learning and plasticity. Every interaction between two 432 Chapter 14 people, even a "simple" handshake, changes both brains in varied and unfathomable ways. The rich interactions between varied synaptic proteins and varied experiences give each brain a unique functional architecture, and this causes each person to learn differently. Given that brains differ at birth and differ more with every new experience, uniform education cannot be optimal. Yet, we typically confine 30 children to desks in a small room for many hours per day, insisting that they "pay attention" and not fidget. About 5% of these children, whose brains by dint of genes and experience respond poorly to such confinement, we diagnose with a mental health disorder (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) whose peak onset coincides with matriculation. More than half of the children exhibiting this "disorder" are treated with drugs with the same properties as methamphetamine and cocaine (Low, 2012). This is a Procrustean solution: prescribing drugs of abuse, instead of discovering what activities calm and engage the child. For students to grow facile at accessing and evaluating information, they must do it for themselves-discover what they do best, what encourages them to repeat-to practice. Probably the best we can do is to provide diverse opportunities: a walk in the woods, a playground, a garden, a chisel, a cello. Instruction should include basic rules for safety and some pointers on observing, recording, evaluating, and integrating. None of these except for safety are truly teachable, because there is magic to it-like the conductor drawing out a symphony with a baton. The best a teacher can do beyond providing opportunities is to give feedback that encourages continued, mindful practice. That is why a few principles can be as helpful as a compendium, and that is what this book has attempted. Brain and computer are governed by mathematical and physical laws specifying that the costs to capture, process, send, store, and retrieve information rise disproportionately for higher information rates. To restrain its overall signaling rate, a communication channel should try to fill its capacity with more information and less noise. All neural processes have a noisy component: transmitter molecules arrive stochastically; ligands bind, channels open, vesicles fuse, and spikes fire-all stochastically. To distill information from stochastic processes, all levels use the same strategy: sum n correlated events and thereby improve S/N as n. This core strategy, which operates at all levels from molecules to behavior, has a drawback: cost rises faster than the benefit. Although S/N can improve 10-fold with only 100 events, the next factor of 10 requires 10,000 events. Because costs rise linearly, whereas improvements rise as the square root, there soon arises a point of diminishing returns where improving S/N by spatial and temporal summation becomes uneconomical.
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