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The ideal is for a researcher to virus updates purchase trimethoprim 960 mg amex be sufficiently informative and considerate that participants will leave feeling at least as good about themselves as when they came in aem 5700 antimicrobial discount trimethoprim 480mg visa. If treated respectfully antibiotics on factory farms purchase trimethoprim no prescription, most participants enjoy or accept their engagement (Epley & Huff, 1998; Kimmel, 1998). Much research occurs outside of university laboratories, in places where there may be no ethics committees. For example, retail stores routinely survey people, photograph their purchasing behavior, track their buying patterns, and test the effectiveness of advertising. Curiously, such research attracts less attention than the scientific research done to advance human understanding. Before showing some friends this image, ask them if they can see the duck lying on its back (or the bunny in the grass). Both in and out of psychology, labels describe and labels evaluate: the same holds true in everyday speech. If you defer to "professional" guidance about how to live-how to raise children, how to achieve selffulfillment, what to do with sexual feelings, how to get ahead at work-you are accepting value-laden advice. A science of behavior and mental processes can certainly help us reach our goals, but it cannot decide what those goals should be. If some people see psychology as merely common sense, others have a different concern-that it is becoming dangerously powerful. Is it an accident that astronomy is the oldest science and psychology the youngest? To some people, exploring the external universe seems far safer than exploring our own inner universe. Although psychology does indeed have the power to deceive, its purpose is to enlighten. Every day, psychologists are exploring ways to enhance learning, creativity, and compassion. Psychology also speaks to our deepest longings-for nourishment, for love, for happiness. Supreme Court cited the expert testimony and research of psychologists Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark (1947). The Clarks reported that, when given a choice between Black and White dolls, most AfricanAmerican children chose the White doll, which seemingly indicated internalized anti-Black prejudice. Illusory correlations are random events that we notice and falsely assume are related. Patterns or sequences occur naturally in sets of random data, but we tend to interpret these patterns as meaningful connections, perhaps in an attempt to make sense of the world around us. Although common sense often serves us well, we are prone to hindsight bias (also called the "I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon"), the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. We also are routinely overconfident of our judgments, thanks partly to our bias to seek information that confirms them. Although limited by the testable questions it can address, scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion and restrain the biases of our unaided intuition. To discover cause-effect relationships, psychologists conduct experiments, manipulating one or more factors of interest and controlling other factors. Random assignment minimizes preexisting differences between the experimental group (exposed to the treatment) and the control group (given a placebo or different version of the treatment). The dependent variable is the factor you measure to discover any changes that occur in response to these manipulations. The three components of the scientific attitude are (1) a curious eagerness to (2) skeptically scrutinize competing ideas and (3) an open-minded humility before nature. This attitude carries into everyday life as critical thinking, which examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses outcomes. Putting ideas, even crazy-sounding ideas, to the test helps us winnow sense from nonsense. Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life 8: How can we describe data with measures of central tendency and variation? Three measures of central tendency are the median (the middle score in a group of data), the mode (the most frequently occurring score), and the mean (the arithmetic average). The more useful measure, the standard deviation, states how much scores vary around the mean, or average, score. The normal curve is a bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data.
Male tusks erupt earlier and grow faster as the male gets older super 8 bacteria order trimethoprim 480mg amex, while in females the growth rate of tusks remains steady (Laws 1966; Moss 1988) bacteria plague inc buy cheap trimethoprim online. Male tusks also tend to antibiotic wiki buy 960mg trimethoprim overnight delivery be thicker and more tapering or conical in shape, while female tusks are more uniform in circumference or cylindrical in shape (Pilgram & Western 1986a). The frequency of this trait is low (Parker & Martin 1982), and most non-tuskers are females (McKnight 1994). It is, therefore, reasonable for one to assume a female when one encounters a tuskless elephant, but it would still be necessary to confirm the sex. Tusks can, therefore, be used in the identification of individuals, which is important in behavioural studies (see Chapters 7, 10 and 11). Previous behavioural and population studies used tusks in combination with other features for identifying individuals (Douglas-Hamilton 1972; Moss 1988). Tusklessness or the presence of only one tusk can also be used to recognise individual elephants. The absence of tusks in a dead elephant that was evidently a tusker usually suggests that it was a victim of hunting for ivory, especially if it looks like the tusks were hacked out in a hurry. The elephant could have been killed for ivory and the carcass left to rot to make the tusks easy to remove (Moss 1975). If one increasingly finds smaller tusks in a population, it may be an indication that there are fewer older and larger elephants. Since older males are the most important in reproduction (see Chapter 1) and older females are important in ensuring the survival of younger elephants in hard times like droughts (Moss 1988), such a population can be regarded as unstable, and possibly on the decline. If one finds a population with a high or increasing frequency of tusklessness, it is a probable indication of selective removal of tuskers from the population (Pilgram & Western 1986b; Sukumar & Ramesh 1992). Since an individual tusk that is detached from its source represents a dead elephant, tusks alone can also tell us about their source populations and individuals. The ivory stores of a protected area can thus provide much information on the status of the population. The rate of tusk recovery, with the exception of very young age classes (Corfield 1973), can indicate mortality rates. If one notices increasingly smaller tusks arriving either at a local ivory store, a central government store or a ware house, it suggests that the source population is probably declining and the age structure of the population is changing. Some populations, for example, have tusks that show greater differences in size for a particular age group than others (Laws 1966). For example Kilimanjaro elephants can be distinguished from Amboseli elephants, by their smaller, thinner tusks (Moss 1988). The possibility of separating regional subpopulations of African elephants on the basis of tusk proportions, colour, hardness and surface texture has also been suggested (Pilgram & Western 1986a). Where an estimate of size is required for free-ranging, live elephants, a camera whose pictures can be calibrated to the true measurements may be useful (Douglas-Hamilton 1972). To measure the circumference of tusks that are detached from the elephant, one needs to clearly identify the lip line. In addition, small perforations occurring from the tusk base to the lip line can also be used. The weight of tusks that have been detached from elephants can be measured using a weighing scale. Data on shape and colour of tusks can be collected by photography, detailed verbal descriptions or sketches. These reports can be in the form of a few pages in a standard notebook which can be designed for other information as well. The pages reserved for information on ivory should be in the form of datasbeets that maximise the amount of information on tusks and their source. The area in which the tusks were found, the cause of mortality, the sex of the elephant, etc. The effort put in to recover tusks in terms of time or patrol days should also be noted (see Chapter 16). If tusks are collected for the local ivory store, they should be appropriately marked to make sure no information is lost. A master record with all information obtained in the field but also other information like measurements of size and weight of the tusks should be kept. Cross-referencing of that information with the collected tusks should be readily accessible. If the tusks are to be transported, for example, to a central store, a system of registration that ensures maximum retention of information from the source area should be devised.
- Ovarian cysts
- Normal eye structures (cornea, iris, lens, etc.)
- Able to run, pivot, and walk backwards
- Chest MRI or thoracic CT (usually used to help determine the stage of the disease)
- Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss
- Radiation -- using high powered x-rays to kill cancer cells
Are there infection 2004 order trimethoprim amex, for example antibiotic resistance the last resort discount trimethoprim 480mg without a prescription, seasonal shifts in distribution or regular movement patterns? Have traditional or established movement patterns become disrupted by recent changes in land use and settlement patterns bacteria divide by generic 960mg trimethoprim with visa, and what are the implications for the affected elephant and human populations? How these questions can be answered is described in Chapter 8 on studying elephant movements and in Chapter 12 on the satellite tracking of elephants. Chapter 17 outlines the practical details of immobilising elephants so that they can be fitted with radio or satellite transmitter collars; a costly but integral part of many studies on elephant movements. Where possible, it is good to distinguish and describe elephant range as accurately as possible. These are: i) core range - where elephants are present throughout the year; seasonal range - where elephants are present seasonally; a) Abundance and trend Data on elephant numbers and density are basic requirements for a manager, particularly if there are plans to exploit the population in any way. It is, therefore, important to know how many elephants there are in the population or area under consideration, and whether the population in question is increasing, decreasing or stable. Obviously trends in population size can only be answered over time, and this requires a suitable monitoring programme to be put in place. Obtaining reliable counts of wild animals is not easy and there are a variety of ways in which elephant population numbers can be estimated. These include aerial counts, which may be sample or total counts (described in Chapters 3 & 4 respectively) and ground counts (described in Chapter 6). Such counts are widely applied in savanna areas, but in the dense forests of central Africa ground counts of elephant dung are used to provide estimates of elephant numbers (Chapter 5). In many circumstances, only an index of elephant abundance can be established and monitored over time. Whichever counting method is used, it is important that the counts are consistent, reliable ii) iii) erratic range - where elephants may occur periodically but not necessarily every year; and iv) unknown range - where elephants are known to occur, but where there is no further information available. This of course has important management implications for the countries involved, and can become especially complicated if management policies between the countries differ markedly. Data on the seasonal movement of elephants were used to make management decisions in Matusadona National Park in Zimbabwe (Taylor 1983). The management authority needed to know whether elephants moved in and o ut of the Park seasonally and if so, to what extent, in order to make decisions about reducing elephant numbers to protect escarpment woodlands. A three-year tracking study of radio-collared elephants indicated that animals in the south of the Park did indeed move into the adjacent communal lands where they were economically important, and these elephants were, therefore, not culled. In the north, however, elephants had much smaller home ranges and were resident year-round, and here culling the elephants to protect the habitat was prescribed. Models should be used with caution and only where they are based on good empirical evidence with a sound understanding of their limitations and the assumptions used in their formulation. A model, of whatever sort, will be of most use to a manager when he is familiar with the ecosystem he is managing and he can contribute to the development of the model and interact with it on the strength of his own knowledge and updated information which comes from regular and repeated monitoring. Simple models with predictive capacity can allow the manager to simulate and implement decisions on the computer and evaluate the consequences of such decisions before he actually carries them out. In this way the manager can assess the level of risk involved in taking a management decision before actually implementing it. Such simple modelling approaches have been effectively developed for the Tsavo ecosystem (Wijngaarden 1985) and the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem of East Africa (Dublin et al. However, the broader application of modelling to wildlife management is well covered by Starfield and Bleloch (1986). Chapter 9 looks at how the interactions between elephants and their habitats may be studied. A manager may want to know the rate of woodland loss or the rate of growth of a particular plant species under given or differing elephant densities in order to answer a management question relating to the objectives of a park. The influence of factors such as fire and water availability also needs to be taken into account when examining the relationships between elephants and their habitats. Fire and water may be natural or artificial components of the environment but their roles need to be assessed and monitored on a regular basis. Sometimes ecosystem models, which may begin as simple flow diagrams and expand into complex computer models, can help a manager understand the system he is endeavouring to manage. Likewise, the models may impede, obscure or At the population level, there are three key points that have implications for elephant management.