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This method should be useful in distinguishing abuse of illicit d-methamphetamine from licit use of decongestant nasal inhalers that contain l-methamphetamine heart attack 720p order digoxin us. This finding offers promise that hair detection will have the sensitivity to normal pulse pressure 60 year old order cheapest digoxin and digoxin detect single instances of drug use venice arrhythmia 2013 purchase digoxin 0.25mg free shipping. Each step requires careful consideration with regards to efficiency, analyte stability, and assay requirements. Prior to assay, hair samples may be cut into small pieces or mechanically ground into a powder. Hair specimens are washed with a variety of solvents to remove oily contamination and surface drug contamination. The choice of incubation/digestion procedures must be based in part on consideration of the stability of the target analytes. Analysis of segments of hair for drug content may define historical drug use dating back months to years. However, caution is necessary in interpretation of positive hair test results since environmental contamination and deposition of drug from sweat and sebum may occur and may obscure the historical record of drug deposition from the blood. In addition, a major concern regarding hair testing is whether it will reveal significant bias as a result of hair color. The pigmentation of hair should not be allowed to significantly affect the outcome of a drug test. Darker colored hair appears to retain greater concentrations of drug than lighter colored hair. Consequently, races with predominantly black hair may exhibit a higher rate of positivity in hair tests for drugs than those with lighter hair. Unfortunately, the relative contributions of melanin and protein in the sequestration of drugs in hair are not known at present. Additional controlled clinical trials with human subjects who receive known doses of drug under controlled conditions are needed to resolve this issue. Small, highly lipidsoluble compounds diffuse rapidly across the placenta to the fetal circulation and quickly cross the fetal placenta and skin to the amniotic fluid resulting in amniotic drug concentrations that are similar to those of fetal plasma. Peak amniotic levels of basic drugs may exceed maternal or fetal plasma levels following drug administration to the mother due to an ion-trapping effect, and the relative impermeability of fetal skin late in pregnancy. Larger lipid-soluble compounds are rapidly transferred to the fetus, but more slowly transferred to the amniotic fluid due to reabsorption in the fetal kidney. Drug concentrations may rise in the amniotic fluid due to an inability to back-diffuse into the fetal compartment. Some drug compounds are transferred in significant quantities to the fetus but are metabolized by the immature fetal liver. In these cases, low concentrations of the parent drugs are excreted into the amniotic fluid. The gestational age of the fetus influences the disposition of drugs and metabolites by affecting the efficiency of renal excretion, and the maturity of fetal skin. The pH of amniotic fluid is lower in late pregnancy than the pH of maternal or fetal plasma due to in utero urine excretion. Although pentobarbital was detected in amniotic fluid within 10 minutes of sodium pentobarbital injection, the amniotic fluid concentration of barbital and pentobarbital were found to be much lower than the concentration in maternal and fetal blood. Esophageal ligation was performed to evaluate the role of fetal swallowing in the distribution of cocaine and metabolites deposited in the amniotic fluid. Ecgonine methyl ester amniotic fluid concentrations were highest, followed by cocaine, benzoylecgonine and norcocaine. Maternal and fetal plasma cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and norcocaine concentrations were similar, approximately 3% that of amniotic fluid, in the ligated and normal animals. Norcocaine concentrations in meconium were high in fetuses with and without esophageal ligation. The source of the norcocaine in meconium was suggested to be demethylation of cocaine by the fetal liver with subsequent deposition into the intestine. It is not clear whether ecgonine methyl ester entered the fetal circulation and was rapidly hydrolyzed to ecgonine, which was not measured in this study, or whether ecgonine methyl ester was not easily transferred into the fetal circulation. The authors concluded that cocaine and metabolites entered the fetal circulation from amniotic fluid to produce detectable plasma levels, and that the meconium analyses indicated that other routes may have been more important than fetal swallowing. The alternate routes most likely to produce these results included absorption through the umbilical cord and placental surface vessels. The failure to identify gestational cocaine exposure is a limiting factor in determining outcomes in studies that rely on maternal self-report or urine toxicology tests.

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Amphotericin B is highly nephrotoxic in mammals blood pressure medication bananas 0.25mg digoxin visa, although this can be reduced by instituting a step-wise dosing scheme based on renal function calculated from creatinine clearance levels blood pressure chart metric cheap digoxin online american express. Use in Companion Avian Medicine Amphotericin B is one of the drugs of choice for initially treating serious heart attack las vegas order digoxin 0.25 mg amex, systemic fungal infections. It has been used in combination with flucytosine in raptors and swans with fair results. Amphotericin B can be nebulized or injected into an affected air sac for respiratory infections. It can also be injected through the glottis or administered transtracheally to treat tracheal and syringeal aspergillosis. A topical cream in a plasticized base is available for treatment of topical lesions and oral candidiasis. The pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B in turkeys and selected raptors indicate that these birds eliminate the drug much more rapidly than mammals. Longterm use in raptors was not associated with nephrotoxicity, so the drug may be safer in avian than mammalian species. This drug is excreted almost entirely unmetabolized in the urine, and dosage modifications are necessary in patients with reduced renal function. Use in Companion Avian Medicine Flucytosine has been used singly as a prophylactic treatment to prevent aspergillosis in highly susceptible avian species undergoing stress (eg, hospitalization of swans) and in combination with other drugs to treat respiratory aspergillosis. Flucytosine has been safe for long-term use (two to four weeks) in raptors and waterfowl. Ketoconazole A major breakthrough in antifungal therapy occurred in 1979 with the release of the azole drug ketoconazole, the first orally active, systemic antifungal with a broad spectrum. Further research resulted in release of fluconazole in 1990 and itraconazole in 1992. Older azole antifungals, miconazole and clotrimazole, are suitable for intravenous and topical use only and are more toxic than more recently available drugs. This is accomplished by inhibition of a P450 enzyme system, and the relative potency of the azoles is determined by their affinity for this P450 enzyme moiety. Vertebrates also have a P450 enzyme system, and the selective toxicity of the azoles depends on their relative specificity for binding fungal P450 enzymes. Potential toxic effects of interfering with vertebrate P450 enzymes include decreased synthesis of cholesterol, cortisol and reproductive steroid hormones. Ketoconazole has the least affinity and specificity and is therefore considered less active and potentially more toxic than fluconazole and itraconazole; however, it is still a highly useful drug. All three azoles are fungistatic and several days of therapy are needed to achieve steadystate concentrations. Pharmacology Ketoconazole is effective against many of the yeast and fungi of medical importance, but Aspergillus spp. It is widely distributed to tissues but is highly protein-bound and does not significantly penetrate into the cerebrospinal or ocular fluids. It is eliminated via hepatic metabolism, and significant interactions occur with drugs that inhibit or induce hepatic enzyme metabolism (eg, rifampin and barbiturates). Reports of toxicity are rare in birds, but anorexia, vomiting, jaundice and elevated liver enzymes have been reported in other animals. Long-term use in dogs has resulted in decreased cortisol levels and decreased testosterone synthesis. Use in Companion Avian Medicine Ketoconazole is currently the most widely used, least expensive, orally available and systemically active antifungal. It is useful for treating resistant yeast infections and yeast infections where systemic drug delivery is required. It is not usually effective against aspergillosis alone, but may have a synergistic effect when combined with other antifungals. Because absorption is increased in an acid environment, ketoconazole should be administered with food.

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Vivipary is (1) fruit development without pollination (2) seed germination with subterranean cotyledons (3) seed germination inside the fruit while attached to heart attack while running purchase digoxin visa the plant (4) seed germination with epiterranean cotyledons Ans: (3) Q463 arteria pancreatica magna digoxin 0.25 mg without prescription. Hypanthodium is (1) inflorescence (2) thalamus (3) ovary (4) fruit Ans: (1) (1) gymnosperm of dicot (2) monocot (3) gymnosperm or monocot (4) dicot Ans: (4) jo in [1991 hypertension the silent killer buy digoxin 0.25mg otc, 92] Q467. Plant having column of vascular tissues bearing fruits and having a tap root system is [1993] Q468. A perennial plant differs from biennial in (1) being tree species (2) having underground perennating structure (3) not dying after seasonal production of flowers (4) having asexual reproductive structures Ans: (3) [1994] Q469. Pulses are obtained from (1) Poaceae (2) Fabaceae (3) Solanaceae (4) Asteraceae Ans: (2) (1) Liliaceae (2) Asteraceae (3) Poaceae (4) Solanaceae Ans: (2) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. Which one of the following statements is correct with respect to the plant species and its use? Tetradynamous stamens are found in family (1) Cruciferae (2) Malvaceae (3) Liliaceae (4) Solanaceae Ans: (1) (1) Terminalia (2) sorghum (3) Pandanus (4) banyan Ans: (1) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. The embryo in sunflower has (1) many cotyledons (2) one cotyledon (3) no cotyledon (4) two cotyledons Ans: (4) [1997] (1) mango (2) banana (3) apple (4) litchi Ans: (4) Q478. Which plant will lose its economic value if its fruits are produced by induced parthenocarpy? Heterospory and seed habit are often discussed in relation to a structure called (1) petiole (2) spathe (3) ligule (4) bract Ans: (3) Q480. Most plants are green in colour because (1) chlorophyll is least effective in absorbing green light (2) the atmosphere filters out all the colours of the visible light spectrum except green (3) green light allows maximum photosynthesis (4) green light is the most effective wavelength region of the visible spectrum in sunlight for photosynthesis Ans: (1) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. Match the following and indicate which is correct (1) Brassicaceae ­ Wheat (2) Cucurbitaceae ­ Orange (3) Leguminosae ­ Sunflower (4) Malvaceae ­ Cotton Ans: (4) [1998] Q482. The type of placentation in which ovary is syncarpous, unilocular and ovules on sutures is called (1) marginal placentation (2) apical placentation (3) superficial placentation (4) parietal placentation Ans: (4) jo in [1999] Q483. The plant, which bears clinging roots, is (1) screw pine (2) trapa (3) podostemon (4) orchid Ans: (4) Q484. Floral features are chiefly used in Angiosperms identification because (1) reproductive parts are more stable and conservative than vegetative parts (2) flowers are of various colours (3) flowers are nice to work with (4) flowers can be safely pressed Ans: (1) Q486. Bicarpellary gynoecium and oblique ovary occures in (1) Pisum (2) Mustard (3) Brinjal (4) Banana Ans: (3) [2001] Q488. Edible part of banana is (1) endocarp and less developed mesocarp (2) epicarp (3) epicarp and mesocarp (4) mesocarp and less developed endocarp Ans: (4) [2001] Q489. In a cereal grain the single cotyledon of embryo is represented by (1) coleoptile (2) scutellum (3) coleorhiza (4) prophyll Ans: (2) Q492. An ovule which becomes curved so that the nucellus and embryo sac lie at right angles to the funicle is (1) Anatropous (2) Hemitropous (3) Orthotropous (4) Campylotropous Ans: (2) jo in [2003] Q493. The aleurone layer in maize grain is specially rich in (1) starch (2) auxins (3) lipids (4) proteins Ans: (4) [2003] Q494. Juicy hair­like structures observed in the lemon fruit develop from ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. Pentamerous, actinomorphic flowers, bicarpellate ovary with oblique septa and fruit a capsule of berry, are characteristic features of (1) Liliaceae (2) Brassicaceae jo in [2006] Q496. Which of the following is a flowering plant with nodules containing filamentous nitrogen-fixing micro-organism (3) Asteraceae (4) Solanaceae Ans: (4) [2000, 06] Q498. Pineapple (ananas) fruit develops from (1) a multilocular monocarpellary flower (2) a multipistillate syncarpous flower (3) a unilocular polycarpellary flower (4) a cluster of compactly borne flowers on a common axis Ans: (4) [2006] Q499. Long filamentous threads protruding at the end of the young cob of maize are (1) hairs (2) styles (3) anthers (4) ovaries Ans: (2) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. Keel is characteristic of the flowers of: (1) Calotropis (2) Gulmohur (3) Bean (4) Cassia Ans: (3) Q502. In unilocular ovary with a single ovule the placentation is: (1) Free Central (2) Marginal (3) Axile (4) Basal Ans: (4) Q503. An example of axile placentation is: (1) Marigold (2) Dianthus (3) Argemone (4) Lemon Ans: (4) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m.

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A variety of different cancers have been associated with workplace exposure pulse pressure and map order 0.25 mg digoxin with mastercard, some more strongly than others arrhythmia heart failure discount 0.25 mg digoxin otc. However arrhythmia practice test purchase digoxin online, identifying the chemical causes of cancer has proved a great challenge for occupational toxicologists and epidemiologists. Often, the practitioner is faced with an individual patient who seeks an assessment of the relative attribution of disease due to chemical exposures in that particular case, for purposes of gaining compensation or establishing liability. This chemical solvent is used in rayon manufacturing and specially in the applications and research of laboratories. Carbon monoxide at high levels can cause myocardial infarction in otherwise healthy individuals and, at lower levels, can aggravate ischaemia in the face of established atherosclerotic heart disease. Nitrate withdrawal-induced coronary artery spasm has been reported among workers heavily exposed to nitrates during munitions manufacturing. Hydrocarbon solvents, especially chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorofluorocarbon propellants can enhance the sensitivity of the myocardium to catecholamine-induced arrhythmias. Reproductive Problems Adverse reproductive outcomes have been associated with or implicated in occupational exposures to heavy metals. Post-anoxic injury, especially from carbon monoxide can also lead to Parkinsonism. Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by lead, arsenic, mercury, carbon disulfide, n-hexane and certain organophosphates. Hearing Disorders Occupational ototoxicity is common, but is usually noise induced rather than chemical related. Dermal Disorders Dermal exposure depends upon toxicant concentration: work conditions, including the degree and duration of wetness; and the ambient conditions at the work site. Some determinants of dermal dosing relate to the physicochemical properties of the chemicals as they affect the percutaneous absorption rate. These include solubility, temperature, pH, molecular size, and chemical characteristics of the vehicle. Important factors include the surface area of the skin that is exposed, the integrity of the skin, blood flow and biotransformation. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis and acute caustic chemical or acid injuries are the most common toxin-related skin problems. Hydrofluoric acid burns present a specific set of management problems on account of its propensity to induce systemic problems, apart from intense local effects. Relevant occupations include not only the micro-electronics industry but also maintenance or repair jobs in which hydrofluoric acid-containing rust removers are used. Psychiatric Disorders Work-related psychological disorders include a heterogeneous mix of syndromes. Of these, "post-traumatic stress disorder" and "mass psychogenesis illness" are of great relevance to medical toxicology because the patients in these cases may believe that their symptoms have a chemical aetiology. After eliminating common toxicological causes, psychological diagnoses should be considered when non-specific symptoms or multiple somatic complaints cannot be linked to abnormal signs or physiological effects. Acute chemical hepatitis can be caused by exposure to industrial solvents such as halogenated hydrocarbons (methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, etc. The jet and rocket fuel components hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine are also potent hepatic poisons. Other occupationally related hepatic disorders include steatosis, cholestatic injury, hepatoportal sclerosis and hepatic porphyria. Acute tubular necrosis can follow high-level exposure to a number of toxins, although the more frequent exposure scenario is a suicide attempt rather than workplace inhalation. Industrial oxidants are an important cause of chemically induced methaemoglobinaemia, especially in the dyeing and munitions industries. Bone marrow is an important target organ for certain chemicals such as benzene, which can cause pancytopenia. Miscellaneous Disorders Heat and other forms of radiation in the workplace are important because they can cause systemic effects that mimic chemical toxidromes. The most important example is heat stress, which is a major hazard in several occupations. Ionising radiations and non-ionising radiations (such as ultraviolet, infrared and microwave exposure) produce their own specific effects. Except for extremes of exposure, the adverse effects of these physical factors are generally chronic in nature. Systemic poisons fit poorly into organ system categories, but are clearly of major importance in occupational toxicology.

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